# How to calculate atom economy of a reaction

Perhaps the best measure of the efficiency of a reaction is to take into consideration both the atom economy and the yield by calculating the percentage yield X .

**A Level Chemistry Revision \**

Calculate the mass of just the desired product and divide it by the total mass of the products. Multiply this number by , and record the answer as a percent. For example, a reaction may have % yield, but still generate more waste than product. Atom economy is defined as the conversion efficiency of a chemical process, in terms of all atoms involved and the desired products produced. E factor (environmental factor) is another simple metric of how “green” a reaction is. It is defined as the ratio of the mass of waste per mass .

MASS of desired USEFUL PRODUCT ; ATOM ECONOMY = x. ; TOTAL MASS of all REACTANTS. mass of desired product + mass of waste products. × (II) % Atom economy. mass of desired product. total mass of all reactants. × Equation (I) is identical to equation (II) because by the Law of Mass Conservation: total mass of all reactants = mass of desired product + mass of waste products.

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